Tuesday, May 31, 2011

FINO' I MAN ÅMKO' : DESPUES DE LA BURUKA, YÅNTO

Despues de la buruka, yånto.

After the noise, weeping.



Children screaming wildly, jumping over furniture, laughing hysterically, throwing household items at each other in gleeful play.

Three minutes later....

They are wailing, tears streaming down their faces.

Someone tripped and got cut.  Someone got punched. 

This isn't so fun anymore.  Despues de la buruka, yånto.

Every single word is Spanish, and in their spelling it would be, "Después de la burruca, llanto."

But there's a problem. "Burruca" is not common in the Spanish language, and is never used for "noise."  It means "little female donkey."  Perhaps someone on Guam years ago described noisy, wild kids as "burruca."  It goes to show that, even in the Marianas, local Spanish slang could arise - just like we've created our own slang in English, as in "air con."

For this reason, and because we use the Chamorro pronunciation for "llanto," I am not using the original Spanish spelling for the entire phrase.

From the word "buruka" we get "burukento," or "noisy, unruly, rambunctious, raucous."

IT CAUGHT MY EYE


Stopping by Mount Carmel Church in Hagat the other day, I was pulling out of the area adjacent to the school and out of the corner of my eye, I thought I saw a sign in Chamorro.  I put the car in "park" and investigated.  Ya-ho.  I like.

Monday, May 30, 2011

LOST SURNAMES : TANOÑA

I MAN MALINGO NA APEYIDO SIHA

TANOÑA

Not too long ago, there was a family living on Guam named Tanoña.  It means "His/her land."  It is an indigenous name, not foreign.

The family seems to have been centered in Hagåtña, which means it probably originated in the outlying districts of Aniguåk, Mongmong or Sinajaña; or perhaps even Pågo before the survivors of that village moved to Hagåtña after the epidemic of 1856.

The family disappeared because by the end of the 19th century it had produced only girls in the family.

In 1897, Josefa Tanoña, aged 65, was the widow of a man whose surname was Borja.

Another woman, Rufina Tanoña, was deceased by then, but her husband Juan Manibusan was still alive and living in Hagåtña with his many children, some of them in their 20s already.

And in Luta (Rota) there was a Ramona Tanoña, married to Gregorio Taisacan. 

All three women were in their 50s and 60s, so they could have been sisters for all we know.

On Guam today, we have many Mantanoña, but we have no more Tanoña.  Man malingo esta.

CHAMORROS IN YAP

SOME 400 CHAMORROS USED TO LIVE IN YAP
Since Spanish Times

Chamorro and Yapese Women
Early 1900s

The two Chamorro women in the middle show evidence of greater western influence in their dress
Chamorros have been traveling the world for hundreds of years, albeit in fewer numbers in the beginning.  As far back as the 1600s, a few Chamorros accompanied the Spaniards to the Philippines and perhaps even Mexico.  There are perhaps stories of Chamorros who left the Marianas for elsewhere that have not been documented during Spanish times.

By the 1800s, many Chamorros started leaving Guam on the whaling ships that visited Apra Harbor.  These Chamorros ended up in many places - Hawaii, the U.S. mainland and only God knows where else.  Other Chamorros moved to the Bonin Islands in between us and Japan, and some others spent time in the Philippines.

But in 1886, the Spaniards established a colonial government in Yap, just south of Guam.  Although politically separate from the Marianas, there had been and would continue to be contact between Guam and Yap, thanks to the Spanish flag flying over both islands. 

Even before the Spaniards officially established their presence on Yap, there was a Chamorro woman, Bartola Garrido, living on Yap with her American companion.  When the Spaniards came in 1886, the door was opened for more Chamorros from the Marianas to move to Yap as teachers and settlers.  One of these Chamorro teachers in Yap, Ascension Martinez Cruz, met a Spanish soldier stationed there, Pascual Artero y Sáez, and married.  They moved to Guam right in the first years of the American administration of Guam.

Some of the Chamorro families that settled in Yap were the Untalan, Cruz and Diaz families.

When Yap and Saipan were both under the Germans and then under the Japanese governments, some Chamorros from Saipan moved to Yap.

One of the Untalans from Yap, a woman, married a Filipino by the last name of Hondonero.  He and his Chamorro wife and half-Chamorro children were deported by the Japanese to Palau during World War II and executed there by the Japanese in September of 1944.

When World War II ended, the chiefs of Yap asked the American Trust Territory government to remove the Chamorros from Yap.  It was not due to hatred or hostility.  The Chamorros and Yapese had lived in harmony for sixty-some years.  But the Yapese (numbering 2400 in 1946) wanted their island free of this sizeable minority.  That is how most of the Chamorros from Yap moved to Tinian, which had no population, in 1948.  A few moved to Saipan or Guam instead, but by 1948 there were no more Chamorros living permanently in Yap.

OLD CEMETERY IN HÅGAT


I guess you can tell I like cemeteries.  I do.  I have to visit them when I see them, even in foreign countries.

The old cemetery in Hågat is easy to miss if you're not looking for it.  It is located in what was the original site of the pre-war village.  After the war, the population moved south to its present location.  I am old enough (ugh) to remember seeing Hågat called "New Agat."  At the time, I only knew of one Agat.  Where was the old one?  The answer is seen in the photo above.

The church in old Agat was where the 76 gas station is now.


I didn't find too many graves at the old cemetery, and many of them are not attended to and are missing identification.  Not many were very old (pre-war) so I imagine the place got pretty messed up by the pre-liberation bombardment.  Many of the names are easily recognizable as Sumay people, so I assume both neighboring villages shared this cemetery.

But there were a good number of graves from just after liberation.  It is said that some of the victims of the FENA MASSACRE (July, 1944) are buried here in this cemetery.

http://www.airdaleamericanhistory.com/WWII--Agat-SantaRita02.html

TODAY'S CHAMORRO WORD : PLÅTO


woburn-china.com
PLÅTO : plate

This is pretty straightforward.  You're going to be eating today, I assume, on a plate, so say "plåto" instead.

Maila' fan i plåto.  Give me the plate.  (Not literally; it's very slang-ish but still correct Chamorro.)


afootinthedoor.wordpress.com
ESPESIÅT ASUT NA PLÅTO
(Blue Plate Special)


flickr.com
PLÅTON LISENSIA?
(License Plate)

NO!
(unless you were going to eat off your license plate)

Probably

PLÅKAN LISENSIA

Sunday, May 29, 2011

AGAT MANGO FESTIVAL


It was a warm afternoon but plenty of people showed up.  At least it didn't rain!  Here's what I saw :


MOST BIZARRE MANGO

MOST BEAUTIFUL MANGO

BIGGEST MANGO

(I show my pudgy hands to give you an idea how big the biggest was)

CHAMORRO EXPRESSIONS : LAI

LAI

"Lai," so it is believed, is the shortened, slang version of "låhe."

"Låhe" means "man," "male," or "son."

"Håfa, lai!" would thus be the equivalent of  "Hey, man!"

So it's somewhat funny to hear someone say "Håfa, lai!" to a woman.

But it does happen.

There is a second meaning to "lai."  It can also mean "law."  That's because we got it from the Spanish word for "law," which is "ley."

But the context of the conversation will help you determine whether "lai" means "law" or the slang form of "man."

ILEK-ÑA SI PÅLE' : I MINA' TRES NA TINAGO' YU'US


(Chamorro sermon excerpts from the late Pale' Lee Friel, OFM Cap)

I mina' tres na tinago' Yu'us ha tåtågo' hit na u ta guåtda, u ta na' såntos i Ha'ånen i Saina.  I Hudios siha ginen ha na' såsåntos i Sabalo na ha'åne lao pot i kumahulo' i Saina-ta ginen i entalo' i man måtai gi Damenggo na ha'åne ya i Espiritu Sånto tumunok gi hilo' i Iglesia gi Damenggon Pentekostes, i Iglesia Katolika ha guåguåtda i Damenggo komo ha'ånen i Saina.  Fine'nana, man ma tåtågo hit na u ta asiste i Sånta Misa an Damenggo yan todo Såntos na Ha'ånen Obligasion.  Yanggen atrasao hao pot gago' pat deskuido, ya måtto hao guato gi Misa despues di måkpo i setmon, umisao hao makkat.  Yanggen gumai mayulang i karetå-mo pat gumuaha måtmo na uchan ya pot ennao mina' umatrasao hao guato gi Misa, tåya' ni håfa isao-mo.  Guåha nai kumåte i patgon pat mumalångo durånte i Misa ya i tata pat i nana ha na' huyong gi Gima'yu'us.  Masea sumåga hao gi sanhiyong diddidi' tiempo, humosme hao ha' Misa.  Ti obligao hao na un hosme otro Misa.  Yanggen malingo maigo'-mo durånte entero i Misa, ti humosme hao ya debe di un asiste otro Misa.

Saturday, May 28, 2011

FINO' I MAN ÅMKO' : FINE'NANA I OBLIGASION, DESPUES I DEBOSION

Fine'nana i obligasion, despues i debosion.

First comes the obligation, later the devotion.


There is no limit to the good we can do.  But we must first do what is required of us, and then do what is encouraged of us.

The young boy said to his father, "Dad, it's great you always take me to the movies on Saturdays.  But you never spend time with me Sunday to Friday."

Fine'nana i obligasion, despues i debosion.

TODAY'S CHAMORRO WORD : BABA

commons.wikipedia.org
BABA : to open

Notice, there is no oval ( º ) over the "a."  Baba means open; båba means bad.

Baba i bentåna.  Open the window.

Baba i korason-mo.  Open your heart.

Ti siña ma baba.  It can't be opened.

Kao esta ma baba i tenda?  Is the store opened already?

Babaye.  To open for.

Babaye yo' ni petta!  Open the door for me!

There is a Communion hymn, rarely sung nowadays, that goes :

I pettan i sagrårio, påle' babaye ham!  Na' huyong i Saina-ta yan nå'e ham!
(Open to us, Father, the door of the tabernacle!  Take our Lord out and give Him to us!)

Just to throw this in : how do you say "can opener" in Chamorro?

"Abrelåta" or "baban låta."  The latter uses the native word "baba," the former is from the Spanish.

Friday, May 27, 2011

I ÅNIMAS : TAN ESCO'S DAILY VISITS FROM THE BEYOND


Listen to the beautiful Chamorro.

The man åmko' believe that visions of people could be the souls of the dead (ånimas) needing our prayers.

CHAMORRO EXPRESSIONS : OLA MON


dilemaszadicos.blogspot.com

OLA MON

Different people pronounce this expression differently.  The great majority say "Ola mon" or "Ola mohon."

Some say "Olåra mon" or "olåra mohon."

And fewer say "Ohala mon," or "Ohala mohon."

To understand the meaning of this phrase, we must go back to its original form, the Spanish expression "Ojalá."

"Ojalá" in Spanish means "would that," "if only," "hopefully."

Notice the title of the music album above from the group Maná.  "Ojalá pudiera borrarte."

It means "IF ONLY I could erase you." (I guess we know how that relationship ended.)

We picked up the phrase OJALÁ and pronounced it OLA or OLÅRA, although a few man åmko' kept the more faithful pronunciation OHALA.

Then we added MOHON which is pure Chamorro which means the same as Ojalá, "would that," "if only."

If someone asks "Who shall go to the store?" one could say "Hågo mohon," "Hopefully you."

"I mohon," means "If only it were so," "If only it would happen."

Then Chamorros shorten words many times.  "Mohon" becomes simply "mon."

So....OLA MON is a Chamorro expression meaning the same thing :  "If only it were so," "If only it could happen."

"Ola mon ya guåho un ayek para guinaiya-mo." "Hopefully you choose me to be your love."

ORIGIN OF THE SPANISH PHRASE

The Spanish phrase has an interesting beginning.  The Spaniards themselves learned it from the Muslims who conquered Spain in the year 711.  The Muslims spoke Arabic and "wa-sa allah" means "if God (Allah) wills it."  The Spaniards heard it a lot from the Muslims and adopted it as their own, but with their own pronunciation.  "Wa-sa allah" became "ojalá."  Then Chamorros changed it to "ola" or "olåra" and added "mohon."

Wednesday, May 25, 2011

SI BOBAT

1920s

Guåho si Bobat.  Ocho åños yo' edåt-ho.  Sumåsaga yo' Malesso'.

Ma fana'an yo' Cristobal sa' pot i pale'-måme as Påle' Cristobal.

Kåda Lunes asta i Bietnes, makmåmåta yo' gi a las kuåttro gi chatanmak.  Siempre ha konne' yo' si nanå-ho para bai in hosme Misa.

Despues, humåhånao yo' para i eskuela.  Un amerikåno maestron-måme.  Ti hu gogof komprende håfa ha fanånå'gue ham, lao sigi ha' yo' adumiddide' ume'eyak fumino' Englis, masea unos kuåntos na palåbra kåda semåna.

Ilek-ña si tatå-ho na gigon hu kumple i mina' sais na grådo, bai påra umeskuela ya bai ayuda si tatå-ho gi gualo'-måme, ni gaige iya Geus.

Mamomoksai si tatå-ho babue yan chiba gi gualo'-måme.  Guåha lokkue' trongkon-måme pugua', chotda yan mångga.  Gi otro båndan i katsåda nai gaige i famå'yan, ni iyon tiu-ho, che'lun tatå-ho, ya meggai biåhe manayuyuda yo' guihe lokkue'.

Lao ga'o-ko dumalalaki i otro tiu-ho, che'lun nanå-ho, para in peska gi tasi.  Tåya' na o'son yo' pumeska sa' ei na yina-ho i tasi! 

Si Yu'us ma'ase' pot i un ekungok este i estoria-ho.  Lao, pot fin, guåha lokkue' para bai hu faisen hao :

Adibina, yanggen siña, håfa sinahguan-ña i låta ni hu gogo'te gi litråto!

KORASON SÅNTO


As we're heading into June, the month of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, we look at a traditional Chamorro hymn to the Sacred Heart, "Korason Sånto."

Korason Sånto, mailague' ham / hågo Asaina, må'gas Guåhan / hågo Asaina, må'gas Guåhan.
(Sacred Heart, come to us / you are the great Lord of Guam.)

Jesus minaolek, mames yan månnge' / må'gas sasahnge yan rai-måme /
(Good Jesus, sweet and delightful / extraordinarily great and our king )

u mamaila' nai i gobietno-mo / po'lo i tronu-mo giya håme / po'lo i tronu-mo giya håme.  
(your kingdom come / place your throne among us.)

When this hymn is sung in the other islands of the Marianas, "må'gas Guåhan" has to be changed to "ma'gåse ham," or "rule over us."

The melody (you won't be surprised) is based on a Spanish hymn to the Sacred Heart.  You can hear in this clip the little differences in the melody, but it is clearly the same one.

FINO' I MAN ÅMKO' : MINA'LAK I CHALAN, HINEMHOM I GIMA'

Mina'lak i Chalan, Hinemhom i Gima'

Light in the streets, darkness in the home

Does our private face (in the home, among our family) match our public face?

Out there, among friends and co-workers, you are pleasant and kind and everyone loves you for it.

In here, among your own flesh and blood, you are misery and grief.

I think Christ called them "whitened sepulchers."  So much for the gentle, soft Jesus who never hurt anyone's feelings.

Mina'lak = Brightness (ma'lak, bright)
Chålan = street, way, path
Hinemhom = darkness (homhom, dark)
Guma' = house, building

Tuesday, May 24, 2011

TODAY'S CHAMORRO WORD : HÅLOM

flickr.com
HÅLOM : enter

Hålom!  Enter!

Fanhålom!  Enter! (to three or more people)

Kao siña yo' humålom?  May I enter?

Sanhalom.  Interior.

Måno un po'lo i eskoba?  (Where did you put the broom?)  Hu po'lo guihe gi sanhalom. (I put it there inside.)

Na' hålom.  To bring inside, to make enter.

Kuånto na salåppe' un na' hålom?  How much money did you bring in?

Iya hålom.  Within.

Hu po'lo i fino'-mo iya hålom i korason-ho.  I have put your words within my heart.

Gi halom.  Within, during, among, in the midst of.

Para u ma cho'gue gi halom Misa.  It will be done during the Mass.

Bai ågang hao gi halom dies minutos.  I will call you in ten minutes.

Ti ya-ña kumuentos gi halom taotao.  He doesn't like to talk in the midst of people.

Halom tåsi.  In the sea.

Halom tåno'.  Jungle.  Literally, "in the midst of the land."

THE CHAMORRO AI PHONE

flickr.com
Juan : Påre, kao para un famåhan telefon-mo iPhone?

Jose : Håfa ennao i iPhone?

Juan : Påre, adda' ti un tungo'?  Guiya et mås maolelelek na telefon.  Todo ha' siña un cho'gue yan este na telefon.  Nuebo ha' na ma na' huyong.

Jose : Påre, ti nuebo ennao.  Hagas ha' guåha telefon-ña iPhone i asaguå-ho.

Juan : Ha?

Jose : Hu'u.  Kåda kumuentos i asaguå-ho gi telefon, puru ha' "ai, ai."

FINO' I MAN ÅMKO' : KÅDA KUÅT KON SU CHALÅN-ÑA

Kåda kuåt kon su chalån-ña.

To each his own way.


A wonderful example of how we took the Spanish language and modified it to suit our own manner of speaking.

"Kåda kuåt kon su" is the Spanish "cada cual con su," meaning "each one with his or her."

"Chalån-ña" is Chamorro for "his or her way."

Notice the double possessive : su (in Spanish) and -ña (in Chamorro).  This duplication is not strictly necessary except that the Chamorro, when s/he said this phrase, was not thinking like a Spaniard, analyzing word for word, realizing that "su" already means "his" or "her."

Another form of this proverb is : "Kåda kuåt kon su guston-ña."  To each his own taste/preference.

Or, "Kåda kuåt kon su hinenggen-ña."  To each his own opinion/belief.

Monday, May 23, 2011

BLOG STATS

OVER 3,000 HITS

In appreciation for the over 3,000 hits on this blog, let's look at where you all come from :

Guam 1596
USA 1122
Spain 130
Malaysia 39
Philippines 23
Northern Marianas 19
Peru 12
Mexico 9
Canada 6
Germany 6

and a few hits from

Japan
Singapore
Hungary
India
and beyond

OLDEST RESIDENCE ON GUAM

KONBENTON MALESSO'
Ma håtsa gi 1856 na såkkan
Si Påle' Juan Fernandez, Rekoleto, humåtsa

I lived a very short while in the oldest, continuously-inhabited private residence on Guam.  What memories.

Father Juan Fernandez was the priest who built it in 1856.  Fernandez was a Spanish missionary of the Augustinian Recollect Order which was in charge of the Marianas at the time.  Fernandez was first assigned to Malesso' and Humåtak in 1851.

Since it was built, it has been the residence of the priest of Malesso' and Humåtak except for most of the 1990s when Pale' Jose Villagomez, Capuchin, built a temporary konbento using as a foundation the stage that used to be on the side of the basketball court.  Both temporary konbento and basketball court have since been removed since the dedication of the new church in 2002.

With the new church came a restoration of the konbento and the priest moved back to the historic residence. 

In the photo above, taken in the 1920s or 30s, you can see the bodega on the ground floor.  A bodega was a basement, and the more affluent people often built a house with a bodega on the ground floor and a second floor for the family living quarters.  Today, the bodega is used as a parish office and museum.

By the time I lived there for a few weeks in the 1980s as a seminarian watching the place when the pastor was away, the old building was falling apart.  The floor and ceiling were collapsing.  It was stuffy, hot and humid.  But at least I did not live alone; I shared the premises with hundreds of God's little creatures - termites, cockroaches, geckos, rats and snakes.  I remember visiting Pale' Lee there in the 1980s.  We sat down in the kitchen, and Pale' saw a rat, in broad daylight, leisurely walk across the kitchen counter.  Pale' took his sneaker off and threw it at the rat, which picked up speed and scurried away into hiding in one of the many holes and crevices of the old building.  Rat out of sight, Pale' Lee returned to our conversation as if nothing happened.  And indeed nothing had.

(To those down south who may think this anecdote unflattering, you know that my years with you were some of the best of my life.)

CHAMORRO EXPRESSIONS : NAI

One of the virtues of Chamorro expressions is that even those weak in the language can pepper their English conversations with these words and phrases.

Take nai, for example.

"Take the money, nai, and go to the store!"

"You were wrong, nai!"

"When, nai, can I see you?"

Nai means "thus," "when," "where." 

Gi gimå'-mo nai gaige i patgon.  The child is at your house.

Gi ma'pos na såkkan nai mafañågo gue'.  S/he was born last year.

But, as an expression, it can also mean "you see?"

I hope, nai, you understand now, and use it, nai, in your English conversations.

Sunday, May 22, 2011

TODAY'S CHAMORRO WORD : MALAGO'

MALAGO' = want

Håfa malago'-mo?  What do you want?

Malago' yo' gumimen.  I want to drink.

Manmalago' siha manhålom.  They want to come in.

Måno i malago'-mo.  As you want it.

Ti malago'.  S/he doesn't want.

Minalago'.  Will, desire.

Taimano i minalago'-mo.  According to your will.

Na' malago'.  To make want.

Un na' malago' yo' chumocho.  You made me want to eat.

An idiomatic use of the word malago' involves a rebuke of someone's unjustified or unreasonable desire or will.  If someone asks or wants something judged to be unjustified or unreasonable, one can simply say "Malago'-mo!" to the person asking, or "Malago'-ña!" about the person asking.

Juan : Måma, ilek-ña si Jose na debi di un nå'e gue' ni yaben kareta. (Mom, Jose says you have to give him the car keys).

Måma : Malago'-ña!  (So says he! Whatever!)

CHAMORRO CULTURAL FAIR in San Diego



This second photo is of the sakman (traditional canoe) which Mario Borja and others in San Diego have been working on for a long time.  Chamorros in the mainland are becoming more interested in their culture and heritage.  At Catholic fiestas celebrated by the Chamorro communities, there are often vendors selling cultural art and promos.  On not a few occasions I saw Chamorro decals on cars traveling down one of California's highways.

SOCIETY LIFE IN 1935

A DESPEDIDA PARTY FOR BISHOP OLAIZ
hosted by the Saint Vincent de Paul Society
April 25, 1935
Agaña

How did socially connected people on Guam before the war entertain or throw parties?  Here is a good example.

The occasion : the departure of a Spanish bishop who lived on Guam for 20 years.  A "Despedida Party" is a Farewell Party.  From the Spanish word "despedir," "to bid farewell."

Here was that night's programme :

A PIANO OCTET
performed by
Eugenia Robinson
Rosie Underwood
Carmen Underwood
James Underwood

ADDRESS
by James Underwood
President of the St. Vincent de Paul Society

RECITAL
by
Eugenia Robinson
Lagrimas Guerrero
Herbert Johnston
Raymond Underwood

CHAMORRO POEM
"Tayuyute Ham"
(Pray for Us)
by
Teresita Perez

CHAMORRO PLAY
"I Testamenton Ton Luis"
written by Spanish Capuchin Brother (Fray) Jesus

Cast of Characters :

Ton Luis (Herbert Johnston)
Conchita (Rosie Underwood)
Rosario (Lagrimas Guerrero)
Ton Antonio, a lawyer (Raymond Underwood)
Ramona (Candelaria Cruz)

BUTTERFLY DANCE
by Haruko Sawada

SPANISH SONG
"Cantemos el Himno"
sung by Lagrimas Guerrero
Candelaria Cruz
Engracia Sanchez
Rosie Underwood
Carmen Underwood

SPANISH DANCE
by
Rosie Underwood
Carmen Underwood

SPANISH SONG
"La Pilarica"
sung by
Eugenia Robinson
Lagrimas Guerrero

*** Notice the mix of English, Chamorro, Spanish and one Japanese number

*** People still put on original, composed plays in Chamorro

*** Chamorro high society was still attuned to Spanish song and dance

*** The participation of Haruko Sawada is interesting.  The Sawada family was Japanese and during the war they were considered supporters of the new regime.  

*** Lagrimas Guerrero is, I believe, in fact, Lagrimas Leon Guerrero.  "Leon" was sometimes dropped by a few people during Naval govenrment times.

TODAY IN HISTORY : DEATH OF LAST SPANISH BISHOP OF GUAM

MAY 21, 1970
Bishop Olano suffers a heart attack while swimming at Ipao Beach, Tomhom (Tumon)
and dies


LAST Spanish Bishop of Guam dies at the same place the FIRST Spanish Superior of Guam died



Bd Diego Luis de Sanvitores
Martyred on the beach at Tomhom (Tumon)
April 2, 1672

Olano was no longer Bishop of Guam when he died in 1970.  He had resigned from that position in 1945.  He returned to Guam in 1970 to attend the episcopal ordination of the First Chamorro Bishop, Felixberto Flores.

Friday, May 20, 2011

A SABLAN IN THE STRATOSPHERE

CHAMORRO FROM VALLEJO SELECTED FOR NASA FLIGHT MISSION

Go to



www.nevadaspacegrant.com


MAN ÅNGHET

Click on photo to see a larger view.  Is mom or dad in this group?

As we're still in May, observing our May devotions, we remember that the custom of dressing some of our children as angels goes back many years.  Here, children in Hagåtña dressed as angels pose beside the Cathedral in the 1920s.  The boys were dressed as Archangels, complete with the straps of their soldier's sandals.

The second girl from the left is still carrying her little basket of flowers.

These outfits would not have been store-bought (what few stores there would have been at the time) but would have rather been sewn by seamstresses (kosturera) at home.

TODAY'S CHAMORRO WORD : LALÅLO'

snapixel.com
LALÅLO' : Angry

Please don't be this today.  I'll try not to, as well.

Lalålo' yo'.  I am angry.

Cha'-mo lalalålo'!  Don't be angry!

Kao lalålo' hao?  Are you angry?

Na' lalålo'.  To make angry.

Ha na' lalålo' gue'.  S/he made her/him angry.

Linalålo'.  Anger.

Halalalo'.  Frequently angry.

Lalalue.  To be angry at, with.

Håfa na un lalalulue yo'?  Why are you angry with (at) me?

Taklalo'.  Quickly angered.  Hot-tempered.  "Tak" is a Chamorro prefix indicating the quality of "very" as in takkilo' (very high) or takpapa (very low).

FAMILIA : BORJA

grandesp.org.uk

BORJA
Borja is the name of a town (today, of about 5,000 people) in the province of Zaragoza, region of Aragón, in Spain.

There was also in Spain a humble family named "de Borja" which rose like a meteor to produce no less than popes, cardinals, bishops, political leaders and one saint - in sharp contrast to some of the most scandalous members of that family.  Part of the family moved and re-established themselves in Italy where the name is pronounced "Borgia."

The saint, a Jesuit  - Saint Francis Borgia, in Spanish "San Francisco de Borja" - was canonized in 1670, just 2 years after the Catholic mission in the Marianas was established.  Freshly rejoicing in this honor bestowed upon one of their own members, the church in Songsong, Luta (Rota) was named after him by the Jesuit missionaries and remains so today.


en.wikipedia.org

TOWN HALL IN THE TOWN OF BORJA, SPAIN
saints.sqpn.com

SAN FRANCISCO DE BORJA
Saint Francis Borgia
Because of the Jesuit missionaries throughout Latin America and the Philippines, towns named after San Francisco de Borja and churches named in his honor sprung up in many places.  "Borja" started to be used as a last name by local people in Latin America and the Philippines.

There are no Borjas listed in either the 1727 or the 1758 Censuses of Guam.  So, the Borjas came to the Marianas more recently, probably in the late 1700s or early 1800s.  People surnamed Borja from Latin America perhaps, and certainly from the Philippines, moved to Guam during that time.

We know, for example, that one branch of Borjas on Guam (not connected in origin with other Borjas on Guam) came from the city of Zamboanga in Mindanao (Philippines) and their "better-known-as" is Zamboangueño (meaning, someone from Zamboanga).  The founder of this clan was Vicente Bazan de Borja, who married a Chamorro named Maria Cruz Guzman.

One of the oldest Borja males listed in the 1897 Census is Catalino Borja (whose middle name, from other documents, was Mendiola).  Catalino was 68 years old in 1897 (although many ages in the Census are based on faulty human memory), so he was conceivably born on Guam in 1829. 

One Borja married a woman with a truly indigenous surname, Tanoña, and this branch of Borjas are better-known-as the Manaitai clan.

One branch of the Borjas moved to Saipan.  Manuel Mendiola Borja, son of Jose Borja and Gabriela Mendiola, married Ignacia Sablan Diaz, daughter of Ramon Diaz and Rita Sablan.  This couple moved to Saipan and raised their family.  The clan is known as the Tuhu family.

The Borja name is prominent in Sumay/Santa Rita.  That branch was founded by Gregorio Guerrero Borja, who married Alejandra Taitano.  This large clan in Santa Rita is known as the Ånda family (from Alejandra).

Antonio Borja Won Pat (first Guam delegate and later representative to the U.S. Congress; Speaker of the Guam Legislature for many terms) was part of the Ånda clan on his mother's side.  Former Santa Rita Mayor Gregorio Muñoz Borja is another Ånda Borja.  Up in Saipan, a well-known politician, now deceased, was Olimpio Borja.

BORJA AS A FIRST NAME

There are a mere 9,000 people in the entire country of Spain that have Borja for their last name.  The prominence of Borja as a last name in the Philippines and Latin America (and through them to the Marianas) is due to the missionary promotion of the devotion to San Francisco de Borja.  Many indigenous people had to take on last names (most non-Western peoples traditionally do not have a system of using surnames).  Some of them adopted religious names (de la Cruz (of the Cross), de los Reyes (of the Kings, as in Three Kings), de los Santos (of the saints), del Rosario (of the Rosary) and so on).  Some either adopted or were given "de Borja" as a surname in honor of the saint.

But, recently, far more Spaniards have taken "Borja" as a first name, again in honor of the saint.  Thus, in Spain, where just 9,000 people are surnamed Borja, there are 29,000 men with the first name Borja.

In Spain, there are 2 soccer stars and one race car driver with the first name Borja.

alejandro94taker.deviantart.com

BORJA PÉREZ
is such a popular Spanish soccer player they even designed a poster of him running for President, which Spain doesn't have (they have Prime Ministers)

Thursday, May 19, 2011

NAVAL CEMETERY, HAGÅTÑA


I noticed they took down the fence at the Naval Cemetery in Hagåtña.  The cemetery was opened by the newly-arrived American Naval Government quite early, as the oldest grave is dated 1902.

One of the most historical features of this cemetery are the graves of several German sailors who lost their lives in the scuttling of German ship the SMS Cormoran in 1917.  To read up on the story, go to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scuttling_of_SMS_Cormoran.




Emil Reschke was one such unfortunate German seaman.


Several more individual graves exist, but a monument to all the Cormoran dead is also on site at the cemetery.   The marker reads, "Den Toten von SMS Cormoran.  7 IV 1917"
"The dead of the SMS Cormoran.  April 7, 1917."


Besides the German sailors, there is the grave of a civilian German, Gertrud Blum Costenoble, the wife of Hermann Costenoble.  She and her husband moved to Saipan in 1902 when it was a German colony, but then moved to American Guam in 1904 where they engaged in business.  Of her 9 children, one was born on Saipan and the youngest was born on Guam.  Gertrude died on Guam in 1915.  The Costenobles moved back and forth between Guam and Manila, and most eventually settled in the U.S.  But while on Guam, besides running businesses, they were a prominent part of the social scene.

Finally, there are many graves of both American and Chamorro service men in this cemetery.

Wednesday, May 18, 2011

I LABANDERA GI SADDOK

Early 1900s
Not sure how EPA would feel about this, but this is how laundry was done at the time.

Mama'gåsi = to wash
Labandera = washer woman
Såddok = river
Bateha = washboard
Palanggåna = washbasin

TODAY'S CHAMORRO WORD : BÅSO

etc.usf.edu

BÅSO : glass (to drink from, not any other kind of glass...glasses, glass window, etc)

I realize this is really, really elementary for some of you.  But, me'nan diberas, some of you really need to learn simple words such as this!

Anyway....those of you in Beginner's Chamorro....use this word today instead of "glass."

CHIEF GÅDAO


INALÅHAN'S PROUD MAGA'LÅHE

This is something I had trouble deciding how to classify.

Legend?  Or historical person?

We have no documentation written at the time he allegedly lived.

But we cannot rule out the possibility that there was a man, the chief of Inalåhan, named Gådao.

Many times in life, historical fact becomes embellished.  A warrior who killed three men becomes a warrior who killed twenty men....single-handedly....with his bare hands....and so on.

But the myth is built on historical foundations.

And the embellishments serve a purpose.  Not a historical one but a didactic one.

So I'll classify Gådao under "Taotao/People."

To learn more about Gådao, go to



*** Maga'låhe is a contraction of "må'gas låhe," or "great man."
It meant "chief."
The pre-contact Chamorros had no king but each community
had its own maga'låhe.

*** In modern times, an older man from Inalåhan, whose name escapes me now, went by the
nickname Gådao.  He was a tall and imposing figure.

Tuesday, May 17, 2011

HOW TO MAKE USE OF A LOST CHICKEN

free-pet-wallpapers.com
The year is 1919.  You and your girlfriend live together, but not in the state of holy matrimony in still Catholic-conscious Guam.  You think you like the new priest.  He seems approachable.  But....

How do you make the first move to talk to him?

Enter the newly-arrived priest of Humåtak, Pale' Bernabé.

The people of Humåtak instantly took to the humble, friendly Spanish Capuchin.  They showed their love by bringing him food, once with a marching band accompanying them.

It seems that Pale' raised chickens, and one of his chickens ran away - three times.  The third time, the chicken was found by none other than the couple in question - blissfully in love, but without the sanctification of the sacrament.

Here was their open door.  They took the wayward fowl and brought it to Pale' Bernabé, who thanked them profusely.

On their way out the door, the young man turned back to the priest and said, "By the way, Pale'...."

HÅFA MUNA' YA-HO GUAM


HARMONY

INAYA'

(click on picture for a larger view)

Monday, May 16, 2011

FINO' I MAN ÅMKO' #3

Del mismo cuero saca la correa.

From the same leather the belt comes forth.

An elderly woman in Saipan used to tell me this.  It's pure Spanish, but there was a time when many Chamorros, even those who could not speak Spanish well, peppered their conversation with Spanish expressions and proverbs. 

What is the meaning of this adage?

The solution often arises from the very problem itself.

For example, one has a load of leather to transport to the market, but lacks the means to carry it.  What to do?  Make straps from the very leather that needs to be hauled, and carry the load with the straps.

Wisdom!  Tinemtom!

Sunday, May 15, 2011

TODAY'S CHAMORRO WORD : KONNE'

KONNE' : to take something living along with you

Chamorro uses two different words for "to take," depending on whether the thing you are taking is alive (animate) or not.  If the thing being taken is inanimate, you use the word chule'

So....konne' i patgon.  Take the child.

BUT....chule' i salåpe'.  Take the money.

Konne' yo' guato.  Take me there.

Kao siña un konne' ham?  Can you take us?

Mangonne'.  To take (animate objects).  It can also mean "to catch."

Mangonne' yo' guihan nigap..  I caught fish yesterday.

It can also mean "to hire."

Mangonne' gue' taotao-ña para u fan macho'cho' gi gualo'-ña.  He hired people to work on his farm.

Konie.  To take for, to.

Bai hu konie hao mågi si tatå-mo agupa'.  I will bring your father to you tomorrow.

Konion.  Able, or even worthy, to be taken.

Ti konion hao.  You are not worthy to be taken, to be hired.

I ti konion na gå'ga'.  The savage, wild animal.

A FEW MORE INTERESTING THINGS ABOUT KONNE' AND CHULE'

1. Most interestingly, konne' is used even for inanimate objects if they represent a living person.

Ta konne' si Sånta Maria ya u ta penta.  Let's take (the statue of) the Blessed Virgin and paint it.

2. Konne' is used even if the object has died, but was once alive.

Ta konne' i difunto ya ta håfot agupa'.  We will take the deceased and bury him tomorrow.

SO.....

commons.wikimedia.org

CARABAO = KONNE'


commons.wikimedia.org

CARABAO MANGO = CHULE'


OUR LINKS WITH A TOWN CALLED MACABEBE


The Filipino people, as we know, are made up of different groups, each with their own language.  Tagalogs, Visayans, Ilocanos - to name a few.  But, among them all, the people of Pampanga province may have the most connection to our islands.  And in that province, perhaps the town of Macabebe ranks in the top tier.

The Pampanga people, called Kapampangan, were at first fiercely opposed to the Spaniards but ended up being their most fervent allies.  When Blessed Diego Luis de Sanvitores was in the Philippines planning his eventual mission to the Marianas (then still called the Ladrones), a Kapampangan layman from Macabebe named Felipe Sonsong joined Sanvitores' missionary team.  Other Kapampangan men also joined Sanvitores in his expedition to the Marianas.

Sonsong, an older widower by then, spent 18 years in the Marianas as a lay volunteer, a donado, of the Jesuits, working with great dedication, humility and piety.  Among other tasks, he sewed and mended : altar cloths, clothing for the Chamorros and the missionaries.

In one of the last major episodes of anti-missionary violence, Sonsong was mortally wounded, in 1684 at the age of 77.  He died from these wounds six months later.  He had such a saintly reputation that the Spanish Governor himself helped bury Sonsong's body.

Monument to FELIPE SONSONG in front of Macabebe's Church
Notice the mention of the MARIANAS several times
The Visayans obtained their first martyr's beatification in the year 2000 when Pedro Calungsod was beatified.  Now the Kapampangans are beginning the long process of seeking the same for Sonsong.

KAPAMPANGAN SOLDIERS MARRY CHAMORRO WOMEN

Besides missionaries, soldiers accompanied the Jesuits; at first, a small contingent to protect them, and when warfare broke out, more soldiers were added over the years.  About half of these soldiers were from Pampanga; they were Filipino, not Spaniards.  It isn't surprising that these Filipino soldiers were Kapampangan, since that province was very loyal to Spain.   These soldiers settled permanently on Guam, many of them marrying Chamorro women.  Their blood runs through many of our veins.  I wouldn't be surprised if some or many of these Kapampangan soldiers came from Macabebe, the town of Felipe Sonsong, or the other towns that orbit it.

IN SAIPAN :
I TIEMPON MACABEBE

Fast forward to 1899.  The Spanish-American War had ended, with Guam and the Philippines going to the United States.  But the Northern Marianas were still in Spanish hands.  To govern the Spanish Northern Marianas was sent a man from Macabebe, Eugenio Blanco y Leison, 270 of his Macabebe Volunteers and their families - a total of some 700 people!



philippineamericanwar.webs.com

MACABEBE SOLDIERS 1900

Blanco was a mestizo landowner from Macabebe who had fought for Spain.  When Spain lost the war with the U.S., the idea was for Blanco and his men to move to Saipan, the new capital of the Spanish Northern Marianas.  Remember that Saipan's population at the time was just a couple thousand, so the addition of 700 more mouths to feed was a great drain on the island's resources.  The cattle stock on Tinian was seriously depleted during Macabebe times because 2 heads a day had to be shipped from Tinian to Saipan to feed the troops and their families.  It seems the Macabebes moved in with local families, placing terrible burdens on them.  The local population felt so terrorized by the Macabebes that the Chamorros who could do so fled to Guam and the Carolinians isolated themselves outside of Garapan (the main town) as much as they could.  The Saipanese were glad to see them leave when the Germans took over in November of 1899.

The Macabebes were on Saipan for just six months, but those times were so bad that I remember speaking to an older Saipanese man about how the man åmko' spoke about the horrors of I Tiempon Macabebe.



The Blanco House in Macabebe.
Abandoned now and in slight disrepair.  The town mayor bought it and plans to restore the façade.


Saturday, May 14, 2011

WE USED TO PRAY IN SPANISH


Naty shares with us the Spanish prayer (said with our Chamorro pronunciation) which she learned from her father, who learned it from his.....and all the way back we go!

Santo ángel de mi guardia, de mi dulce compañía
no me desampares ni de noche, ni de día.
Con Dios me acuesto, con Dios me levanto,
con la virgen santísima y Espíritu Santo. Amen.
Virgen Encarnación,  madre del Verbo Divino
échanos santa bendición...(I can't make out the end yet)

(There is a version that ends with :
guíanos por buen camino)

Holy guardian angel, my sweet companion,
do not forsake me, neither by day nor by night.
With God I lay me down, with God I rise,
with the most holy Virgin and the Holy Spirit.  Amen.
Our Lady of the Incarnation, mother of the Divine Word,
give us holy blessing....
(guide us along good paths).

KÅNTAN CHAMORRITA

Hågo guennao, guåho guine/ ti umali'e dos matå-ta;
yanggen guåha malago'-mo / tuge' gi un pedåson kåtta.

Here I am, there you are / our two eyes won't meet;
if you want something / write it in a little letter.


As mentioned before, young Chamorro love had many obstacles (mama, grandma) to contend with.  These two sweethearts could rarely even see each other.  But absence makes the heart grow fonder.  It's not so much one asking if the other wants something; the petitioner him/herself wants something as well - to get a little note from the other.  Remember when we used to pass notes to each other in 4th grade?

I remember stories about one of my grand aunts getting love notes from her eventual husband.  She would hide the note by sewing it into the hem of her dress!  And they were far beyond the 4th grade!

FINO' I MAN ÅMKO' #2


MÅKTOS MÅRU

"Always on the go"

"Måru" is a box kite.  "Måktos" means "broken off, snapped," such as a string or a cord.  A "måktos måru" is a box kite that has been freed to fly higher and higher because the string has snapped.  It also means a person who is always on the go, going from one thing to the next.

Wednesday, May 11, 2011

TODAY'S CHAMORRO WORD : HUCHOM

bportlibrary.org

HUCHOM : close

Huchom i bentåna!  Close the window!

Ti siña ma huchom.  It cannot be closed.

Ma huchom i tenda.  The store is closed.

Måtchom.  A contraction of "ma huchom." 

Måtchom i atdao.  The sun is set (literally, "closed.")

I minatchom i atdao.  The sunset.

If we had our own version of Los Angeles' "Sunset Boulevard, " it would be "Chålan Minatchom Atdao."

Huchume.  To close to/for someone.

Bai huchume hao?  Shall I close it for you?

Huchom kåtta.  Envelope.  Literally, "what closes a letter." 

More common in the past, however, was the Spanish word for "envelope," which is "sobre."  More common today is simply the English word "envelope."

Tuesday, May 10, 2011

AFFAIRS OF THE DERRIERE


No matter how big your "dågan" is, there are too many g's in that word in the sign above.

For example, "hågan" means "daughter of."  Add an extra "g" and it becomes "haggan" or "turtle."

Just like the glota ( ' ), we can be tempted to put too many letters where they don't belong.

Monday, May 9, 2011

JUANITA - From Mexico to Guam since 1951

PLÅTICA EN ESPAÑOL CON UNA SEÑORA MEXICANA
QUE LLEVA MUCHOS AÑOS EN GUAM

Juanita was born and raised in Mexico but as a young bride moved to Guam with her husband who found work here in 1951.  She speaks about how she found the Chamorro people here in those early days.  She says there were a good number of people who still spoke Spanish in the early 50s.  As she herself didn't speak much English, these Chamorros who spoke some Spanish helped her out when she was a young mother with little babies.  Ignacia Bordallo Butler was one of her friends, who was the daughter of a Spaniard, Baltazar Bordallo from Saucelle, Salamanca.

She speaks about the kindness and goodness of the Chamorros in those days, and laments the loss of anyone's culture.  She remembers how people would invite strangers to go eat at their homes during village fiestas.  One can see some of this still alive today in the southern villages, where perhaps the hosts do not call out to passersby anymore, but who will not evict total strangers who walk into their fiestas which spill out into the narrow village streets.

Friday, May 6, 2011

I KAMYO



The kåmyo was once an indispensable item in every Chamorro kitchen.  There's nothing like freshly grated coconut; a real treat compared to the packaged kind.

TODAY'S CHAMORRO WORD : TUGE'

fanpop.com
TUGE' : to write.

Tuge' fan påpa'.  Please write it down.

Bai hu tuge'.  I'll write it.

Ma tuge' gi petta.  It is written on the door.

Månge'.  To write.

Maolek hao månge'.  You are good in writing.

Måkinan månge'.  Typewriter.

Tinige'.  Writing.

Tinige' kånnai.  Manuscript.  Written by hand.

Tinige' San Juan.  The writing of Saint John.

Fantinige'an.  Archives.  FAN+WORD+AN formula.  "Place of."  "Place of writings."

Tituge'. Writer.

Fantugian.  Place of writing.  FAN+WORD+AN formula. "Place to write."

Tugie.  To write for/to. 

Bai hu tugie hao kåtta.  I will write you a letter.

MANGO SEASON'S COMING!


We're going to Agat at the end of the month for their annual Mango Festival.

Thursday, May 5, 2011

TODAY IN HISTORY : May 5


LAST SPANISH BISHOP OF GUAM CONSECRATED
May 5, 1935

Miguel Angel Olano y Urteaga, who as a simple Capuchin priest and pastor of Sumay was known as Pale' Leon de Alzo, was consecrated a bishop on this day in the city of San Sebastian, in his native province of Guipuzcoa in Spain.  Bishop Olano first came to Guam in 1919 and was soon assigned to Sumay, the second largest municipality on Guam at the time.  His time as Bishop on Guam was not without trouble.  The American Navy wanted the Spanish priests replaced by American ones as soon as possible.  Olano himself would have been replaced in short order but World War II delayed that.  Instead, he was sent, with the American Capuchins, to Japan.  Unlike the imprisoned Americans, Olano was free to find his own lodgings because Spain was neutral in that war.  In time, he was able to go to India and then to Australia and back to Guam when it was liberated from the Japanese.  In 1945, American Bishop Baumgartner replaced Olano.  Olano then spent the next years in the Philippines and finally in Spain.  When the first Chamorro bishop, Felixberto Flores, was to be consecrated, Olano came for the historical event and asked to remain on Guam, which Flores granted.  He died of a heart attack on May 21, 1970 while swimming at Ipao Beach.  He is buried in the Agaña Cathedral, the first bishop to be buried in its sanctuary.  Bishop Olano was well-loved, especially by the people of Sumay (who were transferred to Santa Rita after the war).  Olano ordained the 2nd and 3rd Chamorro priests : Fathers Dueñas and Calvo.  He was the last Spanish bishop of Guam, but he returned to die and be buried in the island he loved.


Olano ordained Father Dueñas (on the left) and Father Calvo (on the right).  In the middle, Father Jose Manibusan, was ordained during the war in Manila and died there in 1945 due to poor health.


PARA NUESTROS AMIGOS HISPANOHABLANTES

CONSAGRACIÓN DEL ÚLTIMO OBISPO ESPAÑOL DE GUAM

Hoy día recordamos la consagración episcopal del último obispo español de Guam, el Mons. Miguel Ángel Olano Urteaga, capuchino.  Fué consagrado el día 5 de Mayo de 1935 en la Iglesia (ahora Catedral) del Buen Pastor en Donostia, pues Olano era guipuzcoano.  Sus primeros años como obispo en Guam no fueron tranquilos, que la Marina estadounidense promovió el cambio de misioneros, de españoles a norteamericanos.  Poco después del comienzo de la guerra entre Japón y los EE. UU., fué deportado a Japón, pero encontró refugio con los jesuitas españoles en aquel país.  Después, pasó a la India.  Al terminar la ocupación japonesa en Guam, volvió a la isla por vía de Australia.  En 1945, a Olano le sustituyó Baumgartner, primer obispo norteamericano en Guam.  Ahora, despojado de su grey, Olano se encontró también sin país, que en España reinaba Franco.  Olano tenía un hermano también sacerdote capuchino, Aniceto, en religión Fray Miguel de Alzo, que se refugió en Argentina después de la Guerra Civil, por ser considerado nacionalista vasco.  El Mons. Olano, pues, pasó a Filipinas, tal vez para evitar dificultades políticas en España.  Permaneció en Manila hasta el año 1960 cuando pasó a España.  Al consagrar el primer obispo chamorro en 1970, viajó a Guam para la ocasión, pidiendo al nuevo obispo permiso para quedarse en la isla.  Pocos días después, sufrió un ataque cardíaco, murió y fué sepultado en la Catedral de Agaña, Guam en el mes de Mayo de 1970.